Thursday, July 28, 2016

Statistical DNA percentages vs. real life

You get 50% of your DNA from each of your parents* which in turn means you get 25% of your DNA from each of your grandparents which in turn means you get 12.5% of your DNA from each of your great-grandparents which in turn means you get 6.25% of your DNA from each of your 2nd great-grandparents etc.  However, these are only simple mathematical calculations. DNA is much more complicated than that and real life doesn’t always match the math. For example:

You get 50% of your DNA from your mother and 50% from your father but which 50% of their 100% DNA is a crapshoot.  Your parents also got 50% of their DNA from each parent but again, which 50% was a crapshoot.  This means as the DNA is mixing and diluting as it is being passed down you can’t use a simple mathematical equation to calculate how much DNA you got from a certain person. The only time that the percentages will be on the money is the 50% you got from mom and the 50% you got from dad because you inherit entire chromosomes from each. 

Here is a great chart from ISOGG that give more of a real life expectation of what you might or might not actually see.  Even if you should mathematically inherit X amount of DNA from an ancestor that doesn’t mean you will. 

File:Ancestor relationships.jpgCousin Statistics ISOGG Wiki Page

 

The chart shows you the chance of you not inheriting any DNA form a particular ancestor.  What this chart doesn’t show you is the amount of DNA you could inherit in between the mathematical calculation and the calculation on these charts.  In other words, you can inherit UP TO the mathematical percentage but it may be (and probably will be) lower.

Here is a real life example and one that many people are pursing, Native American (NA)ancestry.  My 3rd-great grandmother was a Choctaw Indian (have paper trail).  Simple math would say that I would inherit 3.125% of her DNA and my uncle who has also tested would get 6.25% At this level I only have a slight chance of not inheriting any DNA from her and my uncle has 0% chance. So far so good.  However, with the way that DNA mixes and dilutes as it comes down the line I can have anything from 3.125% to 0% and my uncle can have 6.25% to above 0%

My uncle has 0.62%
I have 0.57%

Is this still reasonable?  Yes it is.  What is interesting is that I have almost as much as my uncle has.  I wish I could have tested my dad because I would bet he got a bigger chunk than my uncle did.  I also wish I could test my other living uncle but he isn’t interested in testing.  I would like to see how much he ended up with. The uncle that won’t test has a granddaughter that did test. Mathematically she could have 1.5625% of her 4th great-grandmother’s DNA.  She has a little over 1/2% chance of inheriting no DNA.  Her number should between these two.  She has 0.19%

I am waiting for DNA from a first cousin to add to my NA pool as well as the DNA from my stepmother and her brother who both descend from my 3rd great-grandmother’s brother.  This is pretty exciting because I will have DNA from a different line to compare to.  I still need to map out the exact segment matches but I am off to a good start.  There is always a chance of a false positive but I don’t think this will be the case.

For genealogists working with autosomal DNA this next chart from ISOGG might be of more interest. This will explain why you don’t share as much DNA (or you share no DNA) with someone you have a paper trail for as a cousin match.

File:Cousin relationships.jpg

 

Here are the mathematical calculations for familial matches. This time it will be expressed in centimorgans (cM) along with the percentages. The chart is too big for the blog so go to ISOGG's Autosomal DNA Matches and scroll down to the Table, “Average autosomal DNA shared by pairs of relatives, in percentages and centiMorgans”

 

Now compare those mathematical calculations to what Blaine Bettinger actually found using real life data. Notice that in Blaine’s data there are averages and ranges.

SharedcMProjectUpdate to the Shared cM Project

Blaine updates his chart as he gets additional data in.  The more data, the more accurate. 

 

Nutshell version – You can’t rely on statistical calculations to rule someone in or someone out as a DNA match at a particular relationship. 


* For practical purposes it is a 50/50 split but there are slight variations due to the y chromosome being smaller than the x chromosome and the possibility of endogamy – your parents having a common ancestor down the line somewhere and they are actually sharing some DNA.

NOTE:  Gedmatch’s Dodecad World9 Admixture algorithm was used to give the percentage of Amerindian in the DNA testers.  Algorithm’s are updated periodically and all of these numbers could change.

 

Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis

Tuesday, July 19, 2016

Four years

Today is Ancestoring’s 4th Blogiversary! I haven’t posted in a month so I feel a bit guilty but life is just spinning a bit too fast right now. I have one HUGE project that I hope to get done by October 1st. I was accepted into the Salt Lake Institute of Genealogy’s (SLIG) Virtual Advanced Evidence Practicum which starts October 1st and that is why I have set that deadline. This will help me keep focused and on track.

I have really enjoyed the blog. I love to write and I love to hear from other genealogists so the blog format works well for me. By this fall I am hoping to be back posting at least three times a week again. In the meantime, I will continue to post a bit more sporadically.

 

Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis

Friday, June 17, 2016

Update to Mission Impossible

You can read the original post HERE. A very kind soul send me the names and addresses of every Grantham in St. Tammany Parish. Thank you, Katherine! I will be snail-mailing all of them. I know that one of these will be who I am looking for. As soon as I know, I will let you know.

 

Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis

Thursday, June 16, 2016

Mission impossible?

I need some DNA.  I need some very specific DNA. I need DNA from a direct descendant of Almo Grantham and his wife Martha Thomas of St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana.

Your mission, if you choose to accept it, is to find me a direct descendant to test. Here is what I have done thus far…

  • Contacted the St. Tammany Genealogical Society
  • Posted on the the St. Tammany Genealogical Society’s Facebook page
  • Contacted the St. Tammany Farmer (newspaper) but their advertising rates were cost prohibitive.  They wouldn’t print a letter to the editor for me. I will keep this one in mind though
  • Sent a message to the St. Tammany Rootsweb mailing list
  • Posted on the DNA Detectives Facebook page
  • Posted on the Genealogy Chit-Chat page
  • Posted on the Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Facebook page
  • Obits for the family will be in the St. Tammany Farmer which is on microfilm.  I don’t have ready access to these. The microfilm is at the St. Tammany Parish Library
  • I searched the gedcoms that have been uploaded to Gedmatch in hopes of finding a relative (any relative) that has tested and has their gedcom uploaded
  • I contacted the person that manages all of the Find a Grave memorials for this family

Almo Grantham was born on 30 October 1879 in St. Tammany Parish and died there 29 Oct 1943.  He is buried in the Thomas Cemetery.  He married Martha Wilmuth Thomas on 12 March 1901 in St. Tammany.  Almo’s real name is Armand but he went by Almo his entire life.  He is the son of Keziah Grantham, father unknown.  He had one full brother named Rougier (he went by Rusha) who was murdered in 1916.  I have the DNA I need from Rusha’s descendants. Here are Almo and Martha’s children:

Mary died as an infant, 1904
Lena who married William G. Purvis, died 1986
Mae who married a Seals, died after 01 May 1974
Yvonne who married Edward Crawford, died 1959
Georgia who married James Gaines, died 1994
Elbert, died without issue, 1974
Louise who married a Uell Holmes, died 1994
Alma who married Michael Alsobrooks, died 1993


Okay bloodhounds, off you go!


Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis

Monday, June 6, 2016

A few more than I expected

I was curious to see how many DNA matches I have actually have.  This is for my DNA only (I manage quite a few kits).  Also, I don’t have that many matches on my mother’s side because my mother and I are first generation immigrants.  Even so, I have a lot of matches.

Here are the big three:

  • 23andMe – 799
  • FTDNA – 1300
  • Ancestry.com – 7700 (how is that even possible?)

Wow. I am going to check again in about a month because there were a lot of kits sold when they were on sale and those results are just now starting to come in.

 

Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis

Thursday, June 2, 2016

Fan Charts are your friend

When you are doing autosomal DNA research the further back you have all of your direct lines the better. If you have every line back at least 8 generations you are in very good shape but it helps if everyone else has their lines back that far too. Once you are at 8 generations you are close to the upper limit of autosomal DNA (6th cousins) though when you add the “removeds”  your chart should go out to 9-10 generations. I have never met anyone that has managed to do that (sourced).

Creating a fan chart is the best way to find the gaps in your research.  Filling those gaps should be your priority. I have my fan chart complete to 6 generations.

Ancestor Fan of Michele Lynn Simmons

 

When I go to 8 generations look what happens.

Ancestor Fan of Michele Lynn Simmons 2

 

Since almost all of the DNA research is on my dad’s side, and I have my dad’s brother’s DNA, I will use my dad as the anchor for the chart at 8 generations.  This will cut out my mother’s side completely but it will add a generation to the chart since my dad/uncle is one generation ahead of me.

Ancestor Fan of Thomas Calvin Simmons

You see that I still have quite a few unknown lines. Some of these lines are brick walls but some I am sure I could fill in with some additional research.

Go ahead and create an 8 generation fan chart using the person that DNA tested as the anchor person and you might see the reason why you can’t figure out how your DNA matches relate to you. Researching these gaps will make your DNA research more fruitful.  DNA and paper genealogy go hand in hand. Of course DNA can help you fill in some of these gaps if the other person has their direct lines filled out this far, however, they are counting on you for the same thing.

Charts created using Legacy 8.

 

Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis

Wednesday, May 18, 2016

And it’s a match!

This is an ongoing saga.  You can catch up by reading:
Wish me luck!
Update to “Wish me luck!”
Super fun graphic of 3 yDNA lines
A twist of fate

Remember how I said that one of my uncle’s yDNA matches agreed to update from 67 markers to 111? Well look what I got in the mail this morning.

ss

 

It turned out exactly as I expected. My uncle is a 110/111 match to the above person and that person is a 111/111 match to the third person. You just can’t get better results than this! The three lines are completely different and finding where they come together is an exciting challenge. I think that this yDNA match will eventually break down my 20+ year brick wall. I still haven’t heard from one of the matches but the above match is just as excited as I am. The results have already been uploaded to the Simmons project page. I can’t screenshot it because it is too large but if you click HERE and then scroll down to Family E you will see us. If you look at our numbers all three of us match across the board for every value except DYS442. I have a value of 13 and both of them have a value of 12.

What this means in practical terms is that the other two men have 99% chance of a common ancestor at 6 generations.  I have a 95% chance to match them at 8 generations.  

Take a look at our lines again.  My line is in the middle, I used my dad’s name instead of my uncle that tested since my uncle is still living. The first is at 10 generations, I am at 6 generations and the 3rd is also at 6. We are so close! The 2nd and 3rd lines are proven on paper. It’s the first line that is the mystery. I can’t get ahold of this person to get his sources. I have been trying to prove his line up the chain myself but I am stuck on Henry. I need to know what the proof is for Henry’s parents and then up. I think I will email him again.

 

private

 

Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis

 

Wednesday, May 11, 2016

Ah the joy!

Ancestry.com has the estate case file of my 4th great-grandfather John McMichael.  I was looking for evidence of the parent-children relationship between this John and his son John.  John died intestate and being able to find a nice tidy list of heirs is hit or miss when it comes to administrations. Lucky for me this administration did have a list of heirs but…

ss

 

… here is the interesting part.  John’s estate file is in TWO parts. There was only one entry in the index and this entry links to the second part.  I noticed that the image of the file jacket said Box 35, Part II.  I started clicking backwards through the images and found Box 35, Part I which had another 21 pages. If I hadn’t gone backwards through the images I would have never found this and I would have missed out on a lot of great info.

ss2

 

This is another example of not trusting the index.


Pike County, Alabama, Wills and Probate Records, 1753-1999, John McMichael Estate Case File 1841-1849, Box 35, Part I and II; digital images, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 11 May 2016). 

Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis

 

Tuesday, May 10, 2016

One down, three to go!

DAR

This one was a bit of a challenge because Reuben was one of those patriots whose file has been flagged by the DAR as having errors.  My application was scrutinized and I had to send additional documentation and proof arguments before it was finally approved.  I think I quadruple proved Reuben.

I have three more patriots (that I know of) to prove…
Mathew Patton
Jesse Lee
John Kimbrough

Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis

Friday, May 6, 2016

A twist of fate

An ongoing saga.  You can catch up by reading:
Wish me luck!
Update to “Wish me luck!”
Super fun graphic of 3 yDNA lines

In the early days of the Mississippi Territory there were three groups of Simmons’.  There was a group in Natchez, a group in Marion/Pike Counties, and a group in Perry County.  The group in Natchez was there a lot earlier than the other two groups, long before the Mississippi Territory was even formed.  I have never been able to find a real connection to this group.

The group in Marion/Pike is a lot closer in distance to my group in Perry County and they arrived in about the same time period, after the Mississippi Territory was officially opened for settlement. I always suspected that there was a link between these two groups somewhere.  I just found a very unexpected link.

If you have been following my saga about the Simmons’ and their yDNA you will know that one of my matches traces back to Jones County, Georgia

I just found this…


GEORGIA
Jones County

We the undersiners recommend John Matthews, Willis Simmons & John Bond as good honest upright citizens and that they wish to obtain a Passport from this County and State to the Mississippie Territory as they are about to remove to.

October the 6th 1809
Harrison Cabaness Capt.
Green Mullins
Sion Thrower
denton daniel
Drury Reese - J. P.
H. Harson J. I. C.
Nathan Peeples
Wm Ratcliff Capt.
Richard Ratcliff Capt
Cuthberth Reese
Melton Amos
John Hogg
Hardy Bullock
Elijah Bailey
Wilkins Jackson J. P.
George Cabaniss
Stephen Kirk
Aniel Huggin
Ephraim Cox
Moses Cox
Asa Cox

[REVERSE]
Recommendation in favor of John Mathews, Willis Simmons, and Jake Bond of Jones County. Order taken 11 October 1809.1

Well, well, well, I know who Willis Simmons is.  Willis is one of the Marion/Pike County bunch.  I already have him in my database because I knew he had to be connected.  The census records have him born in Georgia about 1784 which means he came to the Mississippi Territory when he was about 25 years old.  I pick him up on tax records starting in 1810.

This gives me a tangible connection between the Marion/Pike County bunch and my family over in Perry County because I have a DNA match to the Simmons’ in Jones County, Georgia where Willis came from.  I will now need to try and back Willis up in time so see if I can link him into the Jones County, Georgia group.


1 Georgia Department of Archives and History, Passports Issued by Governors of Georgia, 1785-1809  (Arlington, VA: National Genealogical Society, 1959),  28. 

 

Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis

Thursday, May 5, 2016

Super fun graphic of 3 yDNA lines

This is a follow-up to Wish me luck and Update to wish me luck.

This first line is my 110/111 match.  This line is unproven.  I still haven’t heard back from that researcher and I am still trying to prove all the connections.

The second line is mine. It is proven all the way up the chain.

The third line is my 67/67 match.  This line is proven all the way up.  This researcher has updated to 111 markers and we are both anxiously awaiting the results.

Our best guess at this time is that our common ancestor is in Virginia and then the lines migrated to Tennessee, South Carolina and Georgia.

privateLines created using Legacy 8 Charting, lines combined into one graphic using MS Paint.

 

Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis

 

 

 

Wednesday, April 27, 2016

Update to “Wish me luck!”

You can read the background info HERE.

I still haven’t heard from the 110/111 match BUT I did hear from someone else.  What I failed to mention in the first post is that I also have a second 66/67 match.  The one marker difference is the exact same marker difference that I have for the 110/111 match (DYS442, they both have a value of 12 and I have a value of 13).

I heard back from the person that manages that DNA sample. Not only does she have that entire line paper trailed and sourced she has agreed to upgrade to 111 markers.  Oh happy day!

The three lineages are completely different which is great.  We know they are going to converge at some point.  Looking at the three different lines gives us a few clues on where that convergence might be (which state).  We are looking toward Virginia, early 1700s.  The person that manages the 67 marker test is an experienced genealogist so between the two of us we will figure this out.  In the meantime, I am anxiously awaiting the results of the 111 marker test.  I suspect that we too will be a 110/111 match and that the other two will be a 111/111 match.

Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis

Monday, April 25, 2016

Follow-up to “Patience, Grasshopper”

Here is the original post, Patience, Grasshopper.

I received Ella’s Indiana death certificate today.  It is as I expected, this is not MY Ella.  I was pretty sure this would be the case but I can’t help being a tad disappointed.

This Ella was born 16 Jul 1874 in Clinton County, Indiana and was the daughter of Stephen Ford and unknown Rogers.  She lived in Clinton County her entire life.

My Ella was born in June 1874 in Marion County, Mississippi and was the daughter of Charles Franklin Ford and Martha Waller. 

What about all of the “trees” out there that have my Ella and this Ella confused?  A few years ago I would have told you that I planned to email every one of them with the correct info but after bad experiences with doing this sort of thing I am not going to bother.


Indiana State Department of Health, death certificate no. 27596 (1951), Ella Ford Goff. 

 

Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis

Wednesday, April 20, 2016

Another interesting DNA dilemma

I have a total of 10 people that match on chromosome 17 with the same starting position.  The segment lengths are 9.84 to 113.89.  I have two known family groups represented.  My uncle and I are one known match.  The other group is a man, his mother and his known 2nd cousin.  The other people in the group have no known connection so far.  Everyone is a non X match. If everyone had been an X match it would have helped narrow down which line it could be. When all 10 are put in a Matrix everyone matches everyone else except one person matches everyone else but one.  This is an almost perfect Matrix.  Here is the graphic sans names.

ss

This tells me that all 10 have the same common ancestor. Now here comes the problem. After looking at everyone’s trees (the ones that have trees) no connection is found.  This actually narrows it down a bit more because I only have a couple of lines that I don’t have back far enough that it should pick up the match.  The other people are in the same boat. They can’t find a match to each other.

So here is my brilliant idea.  I created a group on BYU’s Relative Finder for all of the matches.  A couple already have FamilySearch logins but they don’t have themselves linked into the Family Tree.  Once I get everyone inputted, we MIGHT find the match this way.  If we do we will still need to prove the relationships up our individual chains but it is a start.

The bonus for me is that if I figure out who the common ancestor is, I can assign this segment of chromosome 17 to this ancestor. If anyone else ends up matching me on this segment, and they pass the matrix test, I will immediately know the ancestor.  They have to pass the matrix test because everyone has TWO chromosome 17s.  All of the above match the chromosome 17 that came from my father, not my mother.  How do I know?  One of the matches is my PATERNAL uncle.  If a new person is added to FTDNA that matches me on this segment I will have to make sure that they are matching me on the paternal chromosome 17 and not my maternal one.

 

Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis

Monday, April 18, 2016

So here’s my problem

You can read the background story here, Wish me luck!  which I posted on Saturday. I worked on this all weekend and I have run into a bit of a snafu.  My DNA match hasn’t emailed me back.  I asked for his sources for his direct line relationships.  I have been trying to find the sources for his direct line relationships myself both because of impatience and because I want to see the proof myself.  I made it up several rungs but now I am stuck.  I did a quick survey of the online trees just to see what people have for parents of this one person and I found three different sets of parents.  Of course no one had sources for any of the parents other than other unsourced trees.

I have got to be able to prove his direct line all the way up to his brick wall ancestor or his information isn’t helpful.  DNA is great but without a paper trail it isn’t going to do me any good.

 

Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis

Saturday, April 16, 2016

Wish me luck!

One of my uncles was kind enough to donate some yDNA for me and I did a 67 marker yDNA test. I had a very close yDNA match. The match had tested at 111 markers so I upgraded my test. I now have the results.  It is a 110/111 marker match. You can't get much closer than that.

I have inputted the match's direct line tree and have started working on backing up his tree with sources. I need to know if his paper trail is valid or I could go off in the wrong direction. I have emailed him asking for his direct line tree that also includes the siblings.

His brick wall ancestor is 2 generations older than mine and in a state I suspected my ancestor's family originally came from based on known migration patterns.

My ancestor is at 7 generations for me and his is at 10 generations for him. FTDNA’s prediction is 95.60% at 8 generations and 99.59% at 12 generations.  We are right on target.

This will be a brick wall I can bust.

 

Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis

Wednesday, April 13, 2016

A Shared Ancestor Hint I can use

Today I got a Shared Ancestor Hint that I can actually use. 

Radford

So what’s so special about this hint?  I have submitted a DAR application using Patriot Reuben Radford.  I have my line proven all the way up the chain.  The person I match has a line up to Reuben through a different child of William’s.  I don’t know if she has it proven on paper or not, all I know is that we are a DNA match.  If she has her lineage proven, a DNA match to her makes my case stronger.  It is a bit of a moot point since I have already turned in my paperwork but it still makes me feel good. Of course it is possible that we have a DNA match with a different ancestor that Ancestry didn’t pick up on or one of us doesn’t have that ancestor in our tree but I am just going to go with Reuben for now. I have sent my new cousin an email.

 

Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis

Monday, April 11, 2016

Who?

Erich Priebke.  I am pretty sure that most you have never heard this name before.  I just added him to my One-Name Study (ONS).  He was the son of Gustav Wilhelm Ernst Priebke and Hedwig Selma Rosa Glänzer.  Glänzer is one of the name variations in my ONS and it means he is related to me (just not 100% sure how yet).

I got Erich’s name from my cousin Christina in Germany who works on the ONS with me. She also sent me Erich’s occupation – SS-Hauptstrurmführer.  Even if you aren’t German you probably understand SS.  Erich was a captain in the German SS (Sicherheitspolizei) during World War II.  He participated in the Fosse Ardeatine Massacre of 335 Italian citizens in 1944 and was later captured and held prisoner by the British. He manage to escape and he fled to Argentina where he lived a very comfortable life under the radar until 1994.  Sam Donaldson from ABC news tracked him down and when he was approached for an interview he apparently felt it was safe to speak out after so many years. He admitted to his participation in the massacre to Mr. Donaldson.  He felt he was not guilty of anything because he was simply following orders. He very wrong if he thought this explanation would be accepted.  Now that his whereabouts were known he was arrested and extradited to Italy.  He then went into an endless cycle of hearings, trials and appeals. He was sentenced several times with the sentence changing.  His final sentence was life imprisonment but was given house arrest because of his age.

Erich died on 11 October 2013 in Rome, Italy at the age of 100.  He wanted to be buried in Argentina next to his wife but Argentina refused.  Germany also refused to allow the body to be returned there.  The Vatican issued an order that his funeral could not be conducted in any Catholic church in Rome.  He is buried in the Cimitero della Colonia Penale de Isili in Isili, Italy. It is a abandoned prison cemetery.

I never knew this man existed until today. Now I want to know more. I am interested in his early life before the War. I want to know what made this man tick and why.

History is history, you can’t change it. There are going to be bad people in your family tree and you can’t just ignore them. I could reduce Erich down to a list of vital statistics and pretend that I don’t know about his past but that would be an error by omission.


For more information:

Erich Priebke Biography (Biography.com)
Erich Priebke: Nazi war criminal (BBC)
Erich Priebke, Nazi Who Carried Out Massacre of 335 Italians, Dies at 100 (NY Times)
Just following orders (The Economist)

There are many more. 

If you would like to see a picture of Erich in uniform during World War II and one of him in later life, you can go to Erich’s Find A Grave Memorial.

 

Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis

Sunday, April 10, 2016

A broken marker

Here are two images of Daniel Boon’s broken marker:

ss1
Copyright © 2007 William Tatum, used with permission

 

ss2
Copyright © 2011 Vince Hatten, used with permission

 

My picture trumps theirs Smile

BoonDanielA01

Photo circa 1925. The six living children of Daniel and his wife Sarah Ann Anderson.  They had 15 children altogether.

From left to right:

Margaret Elenda (Boon) Hartfield, John Moses Boon, Elisha Boon, Thomas A. Boon, Mary Catherine (Boon) Simmons, Reuben Boon.


Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis

Saturday, April 9, 2016

A DNA question

P. Johnson emailed asking, “Why are my ethnicity percentages so different at Ancestry and FTDNA.”

There are actually a few reasons.

  • Each company has a different pool of DNA to work with
  • Each company has different algorithms to calculate the percentages
  • Each company breaks up the geographic regions a little differently

Another thing to watch out for is that all of the companies update your percentages as their DNA pool gets bigger and they run the algorithms again. The algorithms themselves are also updated. 23andMe tells you when they last ran your results through. I don’t see this information on the other sites but I could just be missing it. 

Here are the companies/website that will give you your ethnicity percentages:

FTDNA
23andMe
Ancestry
The Geneographic Project
DNA Land
GedMatch

 

Copyright © 2016 Michèle Simmons Lewis